Brief Cuban History


When the conquerors went to Cuba, they brought products that did not exist in the Cuban agriculture. Since there was more work to do, they decided to make the aboriginal people slaves, so that they worked for them. The conquerors also brought slaves from Africa to further work on the agriculture in Cuba. These slaves brought their own language and religion.

The conquerors mixed with the aboriginals, who stated to disappear because of massive extermination, forced work and new illnesses from Europe that slaves were not used to. The aboriginals extinguished and a new race was born “criollo”; a mixture of conquerors and slaves. Because they had been born in Cuba, they started to feel a certain nationalism and they rebelled against the Colony.

Independence War of 1868

Big personalities start to emerge, like Felix Varela and José Martí, who started the first war for Cuba’s independence with their ideas. This started in 1868 until 1978, when the conquerors promised to leave Cuba and the Colony. This did not happen, so on the 13th of March, 1878, Antonio Maceo rebelled with the protest of Baracoa. For the next 10 years there were smaller wars until 1895, when the US decides to help Cuba to get out of the Colony, interfering in the war.

In 1902, the US writes an amendment that says that the US can intervene in the political, economical and social issues of Cuba. From 1902 until 1958, Cuba was corrupted politically; there were 5 governors at the same time (Percantia) a governor that lasted for 100 days (Grau), governors that auto proclaimed they were the governors (Bastista). In 1953, a young lawyer with a group of young people decides to assault the Moncada base, the biggest of the whole island. Fidel Castro.

Even thought it was not a big victory, this act served people the function of knowing there was a leader that could go against the dictatorship and tirany at that time (Batista). Fidel was incarcerated and exiled to the East. He spent years in prison until the president of Cuba at the time gives political amnisty. Fidel Castro had met other revolutionary people who shared his ideals, among others, the Argentinian Ché Guevara. They buy a boat and they arrive in Cuba with 82 revolutionaries. Fidel installs himself in the mountains to try and liberate the country from there.

His brother, Raúl, and other young people go to the islands in the centre of Cuba. Between those two places, they start committing different acts to start and liberate the country. In 1958, Batista had lost the connection with the North Government, is taken his money away and he goes away from Cuba, allowing the victory of the new government of Cuba. 

After USA

In 1959, Cuba is a small island in the middle of the Caribbean who had broken any relations with the US and it was alone, in a crisis by the dictator. Cuba asks for international help and the Sovietic Union is the one who answers. The URSS sends a boat with men to work in Cuba as well as petrol. This makes Cuba to start following the ideas of the Russian comunism. During those years, they did negotiations with the Russians (chocolate in exchange of petrol).

In 1989, when the Berlin Wall falls and the communist current is no longer in full force, Cuba is left alone again and in a crisis that was called “special period”. The Cuban government had to take measures to recover its economy. The most importante one was tourism, without forgetting public health, public education, technology or researches, which were the ones developed with the revolution.


Nowadays Cuba is developing biotechnology and construction material, while keeping its principal industries like rum, tobacco, etc. Diplomatic relationships with other countries are also helping in recovering: Canada, Spain, Italy, Japan, France, Brasil, Venezuela o China.

Brief Cuban History
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